With five-year experience in teaching Mandarin to foreigners, I’ve seen my students trying different methods to memorize Chinese words, some by comparing sounds with their mother tongues, some by drawing pictures to words they learnt, and some by connecting words to certain actions or objects. They’ve been trying to figure out the best way to help themselves master the Chinese words. To help Mandarin learners tackle this issue, I would like to share with you THE METHODS TO FORM MORDERN CHINESE WORDS. Please bear in mind that words with two syllables account for 60% of the Chinese words and one syllable words play a very important role in spoken Chinese.
Learning Chinese grammar is much easier that you’ve told. Today I would like to introduce you THE COMPLEMENT OF POSIBILITY which indicates the possibility or potentiality of an action.
The complement of result and the directional complement can both be used to form the THE COMPLEMENT OF POSIBILITY. To indicate possibility, we must put 得 between the verb and the resultative or directional complement. We use 不 to indicate impossibility.
Jīntiān de zuòyè tài duō le, wǒ zuò bù wán.
I have too much homework today, I can’t finish it.
In Chinese, a numeral-measure word is usually placed after a verb to indicate the quantity of an object, which is similar to English. However, in English a measure word is not always necessary before a noun.
Wǒ zuótiān chī le liǎng ge lízi.
I ate two pears yesterday.
In a “比 bǐ” sentence with an adjectival predicate, the complement of quantity (a numeral, measure word phrase) can be used after the main element of the predicate to express specific differences between two things or persons.
Pattern : 比 bǐ + noun / Pronoun + numeral-measure word phrase
THE MODAL COMPLEMENT is used to describe or evaluate the state of an action or behavior.
Nǐ jīntiān chuān de hěn piàoliang a .
The directional verbs such as 来lái/去qù and 上shàng /下xià /进jìn /出chū /回huí /过guò /起qǐ usually go after other verbs and are used as the complements to indicate directions of actions. This complement is called THE DIRECTIONAL COMPLEMENT, which includes Simple Directional Complement, Compound Directional Complement and the Extend Use of Directional Complement. I will share the former two with you. The Extend Use of Directional Complement will be introduced to you after you can fully understand these two basic ways to apply this grammar point.
The simple directional complement mostly uses 来lái or 去qù after a verb as its complement. 来lái indicates the movement proceeds towards the speaker. 去qù indicates the movement proceeds away from the speaker.
→来lái← ← 去qù →
Complement of result is usually placed after a verb or an adjective to indicate the result of an action or the change of a status. For example, “找 zhǎo” means to look for, but “找到 zhǎodào” means to find. So “到 dào” is the result of “找 zhǎo”.
Pattern one: Subject+ … + Verb + complement of result + object
我昨天晚上没找到他。Wǒ zuótiān wǎnshàng méi zhǎodào tā.
The above sentence means I didn’t find him last night.